           Expresso

Main rules

➤ use square brackets [ ] for expressions. For example: [2+2].
➤ input name of a variable before expression following by ":". For example: [x:2+2], variable x will have the value 4.
➤ press Enter in any place of an expression or just after the last square bracket to calculate a value.
➤ use variables in your expressions. For example: [10*x].
➤ move cursor or click on an expression to edit it.

Operators

Expresso recognizes all common mathematical operators:

Operator Function Description
Standard Operators
- or subtract and negate subtraction and negation
* or × multiply multiplication
/ or ÷ divide division
% mod or percent modulus or a percentage of a value
! factorial factorial
^ pow exponentiation
º or ° dtor converts the value to radians
Bitwise Operators
& and bitwise and
| or bitwise or
^^ xor bitwise xor
~ not bitwise not
<< lshift bitwise left shift
>> rshift bitwise right shift
Comparison Operators
== or = l_eq equal
!= l_neq not equal
< l_lt less than
> l_gt greater than
<= or l_ltoe less than or equal
>= or l_gtoe greater than or equal
Logical Operators
&& or l_and logical and
|| or l_or logical or
! or ¬ l_not logical not

Funstions

In addition the following functions are available:

Functions that take > 1 parameter

• sum() - returns a sum of the passed parameters
• count() - returns the number of passed parameters
• min() - returns the minimum of the passed parameters
• max() - returns the maximum of the passed parameters
• median() - returns the median of the passed parameters
• stddev() - returns the standard deviation of the passed parameters
• average() - returns the average of the passed parameters
• random() - returns a random integer. Can take 0, 1, or 2 parameters. The first parameter (if given) is the lower bound of the random integer. The second parameter (if given) is the upper bound of the random integer.
• nthroot() - returns the nth root of a number. For example, nthroot(27,3) returns the cube root of 27, or 3.

Functions that take 1 parameter:

• sqrt() - returns the square root of the passed parameter
• log() - returns the base 10 log of the passed parameter
• ln() - returns the base e log of the passed parameter
• log2() - returns the base 2 log of the passed parameter
• exp() - returns e raised to the power of the passed parameter
• ceil() - returns the passed parameter rounded up
• floor() - returns the passed parameter rounded down
• The trigonometric functions:

• sin(), cos(), tan()
• Their inverses (asin, acos, atan)
• Their reciprocals (csc, sec, cotan)
• The reciprocals of the inverses (acsc, asec, acotan)
• The hyperbolic variations of all the above functions (sinh, cosh, tanh, asinh, acosh, atanh, csch, sech, cotanh, acsch, asech, acotanh)
• The versine functions (versin, vercosin, coversin, covercosin, haversin, havercosin, hacoversin, hacovercosin, exsec, excsc, crd)
• dtor() - converts the passed parameter from degrees to radians
• rtod() - converts the passed parameter from radians to degrees

Functions that take no parameters ("constant functions"):

• phi - returns the value of ϕ (the Golden Ratio). Also recognized as ϕ
• pi - returns the value of π. Also recognized as π
• pi_2 - returns the value of π/2
• pi_4 - returns the value of π/4
• tau - returns the value of τ. Also recognized as τ
• sqrt2 - returns the value of the square root of 2
• e - returns the value of e
• log2e - returns the value of the log base 2 of e
• log10e - returns the value of the log base 10 of e
• ln2 - returns the value of the log base e of 2
• ln10 - returns the value of the log base e of 10     